Can aggressive dogs be a reflection of their owners? The answer is yes. Are there other factors? Also yes. According to researchers from Michigan State University, dogs with aggressive or anxious temperaments often have owners with negative personality traits. And on the flip side, the 2019 study found outgoing and active people tend to have dogs with energetic and gregarious personalities to match.
Meanwhile, a 2017 study by researchers at the University of Vienna found dogs often mirror their owners’ emotional states. When people were calm and happy, their dogs often absorbed and reflected those states, and when people were stressed and irritable—their dogs were, too.
These studies have no doubt prompted some dog owners to take a look in the mirror. (And perhaps even invest in therapy.) But what do they mean for people and their best friends, especially in instances of problem dog behaviors?
Can Aggressive Dogs Be Rehabilitated?
Improvements are possible in dogs with aggressive traits, but never guaranteed.
An interesting (and heartening) finding in the MSU study, is that dogs change throughout their lives just as people do. So, if your dog has aggressive traits, they won’t necessarily remain as intense throughout his life.
Note: Chronic aggression in any dog is a serious problem; consult your veterinarian or a professional dog behaviorist if you have a chronically aggressive dog.
Also, dogs who have shown severe or chronic aggressive behaviors at any point require close attention for the rest of their lives, even after years of docile behavior. Dogs who have bitten before are more likely to bite in the future1. And it’s always possible your dog will encounter circumstances, people, or animals that trigger regression.
Another important takeaway: Don’t judge a person by their Corgi. The connection between the personalities of dogs and their people won’t hold true in every case. It also doesn’t take into consideration the unique experiences of rescue dogs—who have usually lived in more than one household.
Note: Health issues and pain can also be contributing factors in dog aggression2. If your dog becomes uncharacteristically aggressive, take him to the veterinarian and have him checked for underlying ailments.
How to Train and Socialize Aggressive Dogs
Start by pondering how you react to the challenges that are part and parcel of modern life. Do you bark at drivers who cut you off on your commute to work? Are you snappish with your family when you’re tired? Do you fret excessively over big decisions?
Everyone gets touchy and angry, but if you are honest and find you’re chronically negative, consider addressing these issues—in a way that works best for you, whether it’s with the help of a professional, reading self-help books, or practicing mindfulness meditation.
As highlighted in the above studies, your dog will take his cues from you during training. If you lose your cool every time he barks at another dog or growls when you come near his food bowl, you’re unlikely to see noticeable improvements in his behavior.
Do you need a professional trainer for your aggressive dog? Most likely. If your dog’s aggression is severe, or you think you’re unable to remain calm throughout the training, enlist the help of a professional trainer with expertise in aggressive dogs. Even with a trainer, however, success depends on you and every member of your household participating in the process—patiently and consistently.
The Essentials of Training an Aggressive Dog
The ideal training program for your dog will depend on the severity of his aggression and the circumstances that tend to provoke his problem behavior. But some essential techniques and tools are necessary, no matter the particulars.
Learn to Spot Aggression In Your Dog
There are often warning signs you can pick up before your dog begins snarling, snapping, or barking. It’ll vary depending on whether your dog’s aggression is related to fear, dominance, or protection of food, dog toys, or people.
Here are some signs of possible aggressive behavior in dogs1:
- Rigid stance
- Teeth baring
- Head held high
- Tail held high
- Head lowered, defensively
- Tail between legs
- Shrinking body language
Unfortunately, some dogs exhibit no warning signs before becoming aggressive.
The goal is to desensitize your dog to the typical scenarios, places, people, and other animals that trigger his aggression.
The first step is understanding what sets him off. Does he stay calm when dogs are far away but become snappish within a certain distance? Is he placid around people he knows, even acquaintances, but wildly protective around strangers? Does he growl menacingly at other dogs during playtime?
These are the areas where you’ll focus your desensitization efforts. Usually, this involves starting within his comfort zone and slowly moving closer to his triggers. One example is playing with your dog near a dog park and incrementally getting closer to it, while giving treats and praise whenever he focuses on playtime rather than the other dogs. When he starts snarling at the other dogs, calmly and abruptly end the play session for the day. Over time, he’ll associate positive outcomes with paying attention to you, and negative ones with turning his attention to the other dogs.
This is a painstaking, months-long process with any dog, but particularly so with aggressive dogs. Be patient. Ask a dog behaviorist for help and support.
Reward Good Behavior
Abundant praise. Dog treats. Ear scratches. These are the foundation of any dog obedience training program. Catch your dog being good. When he walks past another dog without flipping out, goes calmly to his crate when guests arrive, or lets you touch his bowl without growling—reward him with praise.
Avoid Harsh Punishments
Finally, never yell at your dog or hit him when he becomes aggressive. Speak firmly, control him with a dog harness, contain him. But meeting aggression with aggression will only exacerbate the problem.
Some dog behaviors—chronic jumping or whining—can go unchecked. Aggression isn’t one of them. You don’t want anyone to get hurt, within your family or elsewhere, and dog owners are ultimately responsible for the behavior of their dogs.
If your dog is canine non grata in the neighborhood, barks ferociously at strange dogs and people, or snarls protectively over his dog bowl—you’ve got a serious issue that requires intervention. Talk with your veterinarian, a professional dog behaviorist, and manage your own anger. Any improvements in your behavior and your dog’s will bring greater peace to your home and daily life with your best friend.