Off-leash dog training is a challenging undertaking and a serious responsibility. When your dog is off leash, you don’t have the same level of control as you do when she’s on leash. The risk of her running off is higher, and you can’t keep her close by your side when you encounter other people, dogs, or wild animals.
But if you have the time for intensive training, and your dog has the right temperament—there’s something uniquely free and fun about hiking with your dog unfettered by a leash.
You can watch her race top speed across fields, cavort with other amiable dogs, and explore the wider world beyond a six-foot tether. Read on to learn whether off-leash training is right for you and your dog, and how to off-leash train your dog.
What Is Off-Leash Training?
Off-leash training is teaching your dog to walk or hike with you while unclipped from the leash. It is a specialized training different from the obedience skills your dog needs to run around inside a fenced-in yard or enclosed dog park. Off-leash training is essential if you dream of taking your dog off leash when hiking your favorite trails together or during camping trips.
Best Dogs to Train Off Leash
Factor your dog’s temperament into your decision to go off leash. Some characteristics that indicate she’s a good candidate:
- Socializes well with strangers (canines and people)
- Responsive to training
- Tends to stay put when she sees a squirrel (or another critter)
- No history of dashing off and getting lost
On the flip side, if your dog runs off routinely, barks at strangers, or ignored your prior attempts at training—it’s best to restrict her time off leash to fenced-in areas.
Are Some Dog Breeds Best for Walking or Hiking Off Leash?
Because every dog is different, even within a specific breed, there’s no definitive answer. But if you’re deciding on a dog breed and hope to have an off-leash hiking buddy, trainability and prey drive are two things to keep in mind.
Some breeds have an especially strong prey drive (Rhodesian Ridgebacks, Shiba Inus, Siberian Huskies, and Redbone Coonhounds, to name a few), so it’s helpful to do your research. You might be able to off-leash train a Husky or another breed with a high prey drive, but expect a challenge. To train a Husky off leash, you may want to work with a professional trainer, or make sure you’re practicing within an enclosed area.
Though sporting breeds have a powerful prey drive too, many of them are also highly trainable. Retrievers and Spaniels, for example, are go-to breeds for upland and waterfowl hunting—two off-leash sporting avocations with a long history.
With those caveats in mind, some dog breeds that may make excellent off-leash companions (depending upon the individual dog’s personality) include:
How to Train Your Dog Off Leash
Before diving into any training regimen with your dog, it’s helpful to know Training your dog off leash requires time (possibly a months), short training sessions to introduce recall training and other off-leash commands, and plenty of patience. Before diving into any training regimen with your dog, it’s helpful to know what yields the best results. Build your off-leash training program on the following:
- Time – Like all dog training, off-leash lessons take time. Done right, this process will take weeks, or even months, of daily practice.
- Short training sessions – Especially at the beginning, keep the training sessions short. A few minutes to 10 minutes is enough to help your dog learn that rewards follow when she pays attention and responds to commands. You can lengthen training sessions as time goes on.
- Patience – People can grow frustrated when their dog isn’t ‘getting’ it. Be patient. Dogs need repeat commands, gentle correctives, and successes over time before they master these skills.
- Consistency – The quickest way to undermine your dog’s training is giving mixed signals that undermine the lessons. When she’s off leash, your commands, expectations, and responses should be consistent. The training schedule should also be consistent. If you start off-leash training and then take a month break—don’t expect your dog to retain much of her earlier training.
- Readiness to stop – End the training session when your dog doesn’t come or begins to appear distracted. Don’t offer rewards at this time. Abruptly stop in a matter-of-fact (never angry) way, and then leave the area—heading back to the car or your house. You want your dog to associate rewards with training and her attentiveness.
- Positive reinforcement – Praise. Dog treats. Pats on the back. These are the primary tools of any successful dog training program.
Keeping the above in mind throughout, you can begin off-leash training:
Step 1: Recall training. Without fail, your dog should run to your side when you say “come,” or when you yell the command when she’s further afield. Follow our comprehensive instructions for teaching a dog or puppy to come.
When your dog has mastered the recall command, it’s time to test it at a greater distance. Your best bet is using a 30-foot leash or check cord, a long leash designed for upland hunting training. (Note: Exercise caution with long leashes, which are a trip and entanglement hazard for dogs and people.) Visit your favorite hiking trail or open space and practice having your dog “come” as you progressively let out the leash to its full length. Each and every time she comes, reward her with a “good dog!” and a treat.
Once your dog “comes” without fail from a distance of 30 feet, add distractions to the mix. Bring a training buddy along who can run nearby while you give commands, and offer praise when your dog comes. Or, take her to a park or trail and practice long-distance recalls at a busy time of day when other hikers and dogs are around.
Step 2: Practice other essential off-leash commands. Leave it, sit, stay, no. These are the other commands your dog should respond to with consistency before you let her off leash. “Leave it” matters because your dog may return to you with something unsavory she snapped up around the bend ahead, and out of your sight. “Stay,” “sit,” and “no” will help you keep her within view if there are known hazards off-trail, or you have an encounter with a bear or another dog who hasn’t learned trail etiquette.
Step 3: Double-check identification. Before untethering your dog from her leash, make sure she’s microchipped and wearing a dog collar with ID tags firmly attached. Personalized collars are a great way to make your contact information stand out should your dog run off.
Step 4: Go off leash in a dog park. Find the largest dog park in your area. The goal is putting distance between you and your dog in an environment with distractions. Practice in busy areas, continuing to offer rewards as your dog obeys your commands.
Step 5: Go off leash on a trail. When you go off leash for the first time in an uncontrolled setting, keep the walk or hike short and practice the commands as you go. As you begin to feel more confident in your dog’s responsiveness, extend your hikes together. You will encounter new experiences as you go, and you’ll have plenty of opportunities to practice. When you pass another hiker with a dog, ask your dog to “sit” until they’ve passed. Or, call your dog when she’s having a friendly encounter with another dog, to ensure she’ll respond even when she’s having a good time.
E-collar Off-Leash Dog Training
Hunters have long used e-collars (also called remote dog training systems) to train gun dogs for upland hunting. But today, they’re used for dog training of all types. E-collars deliver mild vibrations, audible beeps, and electronic pulses that draw your dog’s attention and offer behavior corrections when she’s at a distance.
The dog trainer uses a connected handheld device to deliver the signals, which are meant to control barking, to stop other unwanted behavior, or to get the dog to come. Most e-collars let you adjust the stimulation to a level your dog responds to consistently. Many also include GPS tracking systems that keep track of your dog when she wanders out of sight.
Note: There is controversy surrounding the use of e-collars. Because the e-collar is an aversive training tool, some people feel it undermines positive reinforcement strategies and is harmful to dogs. But users of the e-collar maintain it’s an excellent off-leash training tool, effective at transforming unwanted behaviors such as incessant barking or running out of sight when off leash.
It’s essential to understand the e-collar isn’t a substitute for traditional training. Resist using an e-collar until your dog has learned basic obedience commands, and keep e-collar training sessions brief if you opt to use one.
E-Collar Off-Leash Training Tips:
- Before using an e-collar, make sure you understand its appropriate uses, and the uses that can cause harm. Use the corrective stimulation sparingly, and never as a punishment. If the stimulus is not properly timed, e-collars are not effective training tools.
- Every dog will have a different level of sensitivity to the e-collar stimulation: Highly sensitive dogs will respond to a low setting, while less sensitive dogs will need a higher setting.
- Carefully follow the instructions that come with your e-collar to determine the correct placement, and the stimulation level your dog will respond to without causing her distress.
- Start using the e-collar with a long leash or check cord. Say “come” and activate the e-collar at the same time, then use the check collar to gently tug the check cord so your dog turns to you. She’ll soon learn the check cord and e-collar have the same meaning.
- Next, keep the check cord lax while you say “come” and then activate the e-collar. Cease the stimulation and offer praise as soon as you see your dog begins to come.
Repeat several times, offering rewards each time your dog responds to the recall command.
- When your dog responds to “come” and the e-collar stimulation, practice giving her the verbal command without the stimulation. When she comes, offer praise and treats.
- Repeat this process with the other essential off-leash commands (though there’s no need to start with the check cord again).
- Once your dog responds to verbal commands consistently, the e-collar is simply a backup. Dogs should never wear e-collars as their regular collars. But you may choose to use an e-collar whenever walking your dog off leash—using it ONLY if your dog doesn’t respond to your voice or if she’s in danger (e.g., in an encounter with a wild animal or nearing a steep drop or cliff.)
Other hunting dog supplies helpful for off-leash excursions include locator bells that let you ‘hear’ your dog on the trail, and long-range whistles—though these require a repeat of recall training with the whistle substituting for “come.”
Training your dog off leash comes with responsibility. Leash laws vary widely by state and municipal government: Make sure you know the local laws wherever you let your dog off leash. You’ll also find varied leash rules within municipal and state parks. And though some National Parks are dog friendly, most of them require you keep your dog on a leash at all times.
No matter how friendly your dog is, some people are frightened of off-leash dogs. Be attentive to other hikers and offer assurances that your dog is well behaved. If anyone remains uncomfortable, respect their fear, recall your dog, and leash her until they pass.
With patience, consistency, and positivity, you can train your dog to hike with you off leash safely and responsibly. You love every adventure with your furry best friend—but your free-range forays are sure to be your favorites.